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TreeAzin® Frequently Asked Questions

TreeAzin® Systemic Insecticide is owned by the Canadian Forest Service and was developed in collaboration with BioForest, who holds its worldwide license. TreeAzin is distributed by BioForest in Canada.

If you have additional questions not answered below please Contact Us

Always read the TreeAzin Label before using: Canada | USA

 What is TreeAzin® Systemic Insecticide?
  • TreeAzin is a systemic insecticide injected directly into the base of trees.
  • TreeAzin is produced from Neem tree (Azadiracta indica) seed extracts.
  • Neem extracts have been used for centuries to control insects.
  • The active ingredient in TreeAzin is Azadirachtin (5% solution).
  • TreeAzin is NOT Neem Oil.
  • In Canada, TreeAzin is registered by Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) (PCP 30559).
  • Ontario's Ministry of the Environment (MOE) scheduled TreeAzin as a class 4 pesticide or "least hazardous that is commercial", with a class 11 active ingredient.
  • TreeAzin is exempt from Ontario's Cosmetic Pesticide Ban Act.
  • In the United States, TreeAzin is registered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a bioinsecticide (Reg. No. 82996-1). It is also listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) for use in organic crops.
  • TreeAzin is owned by the Canadian Forest Service (CFS) and was developed in collaboration with BioForest, who holds its worldwide license.
  • Always read the TreeAzin Label before using: Canada | USA
Neem Tree Leaf TreeAzin Label Canada TreeAzin Label USA
TreeAzin Label Canada TreeAzin Label USA

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 How does TreeAzin® work?
  • TreeAzin is injected under a tree's bark, directly into the conductive tissues, and moves upwards with the flow of water and nutrients.
  • TreeAzin is formulated to inject quickly into ash (avg. 15 - 30 min. / tree) and translocates rapidly throughout the tree (approx. 48 hrs).
  • TreeAzin kills insect larvae feeding on the tree's tissues by regulating growth and disrupting normal molting.
  • In certain groups of insect pests, like Emerald Ash Borer, TreeAzin has also been shown to reduce fertility and egg viability when adult females feed on a treated the tree's foliage.
  • These multiple modes of action help to reduce the potential for resistance in pest populations.
  • TreeAzin is found throughout the tree at effective levels through the growing season and provides up to two years protection against Emerald Ash Borer.
TreeAzin Treated vs. EAB Infested
TreeAzin Treated vs. EAB Infested in Oakville, ON - 2011

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 Is TreeAzin® effective against Emerald Ash Borer (EAB)?
  • Early summer injections (5 ml/cm dbh) provide effective control of EAB for two seasons.
  • In the year of treatment:
    • 95% EAB larvae feeding on treated tree tissues do not complete development and die
    • Adult female EAB beetles that feed on treated tree leaves lay significantly fewer eggs
    • Eggs laid are not viable (<1% viable)
  • In the year following treatment:
    • EAB larvae hatched from viable eggs do not complete development
    • Number and length of EAB galleries are significantly lower in treated vs. untreated ash
TreeAzin Treated vs. EAB Infested
TreeAzin Treated vs. EAB Infested in Oakville, ON - 2011
TreeAzin Efficacy
2010 TreeAzin efficacy following a single application in 2008 (5 ml/cm dbh)

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 Is TreeAzin® effective against other insect pests?
Emerald Ash Borer
Emerald Ash Borer
Gypsy Moth
Gypsy Moth
Birch Leafminer
Birch Leafminer
Elm Leaf Beetle
Elm Leaf Beetle
Spruce Budworm
Spruce Budworm
Jack Pine Budworm
Jack Pine Budworm
Tent Caterpillars
Forest Tent Caterpillar
Arborvitae Leafminers
Arborvitae Leafminers
Hemlock Woolly Adelgid
Hemlock Woolly Adelgid

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 Is TreeAzin® appropriate for the urban setting?
  • TreeAzin is injected under a tree's bark, directly into the conductive tissues.
  • TreeAzin degrades naturally within tree tissues.
  • When used as labeled TreeAzin poses minimal risk to:
    • applicators, bystanders, and pets
    • bees, birds, and mammals
    • soil, and aquatic ecosystems
  • According to a 2010 Canadian Forest Service publication, the botanical origin of TreeAzin, coupled with its low risk toxicological characteristics, makes it suitable for use in urban settings and environmentally sensitive areas.
TreeAzin Injection
TreeAzin injected directly into trees with the EcoJect System

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 How is TreeAzin® applied?
  • TreeAzin is injected under a tree's bark, directly into the conductive tissues, and moves upwards with the flow of water and nutrients.
  • BioForest has developed the EcoJect System, a tree microinjection system for the application of systemic pesticides into high value trees (US Patent 7,114,289).
  • With the EcoJect System:
    • Canisters are loaded with TreeAzin and sealed under pressure.
    • Small injection holes (15/64") are drilled into the tree (3/4 - 1").
    • Nozzles are inserted and secured in the injections holes.
    • TreeAzin loaded canisters are mated with the nozzles, beginning the injection.
  • TreeAzin is formulated to inject quickly into ash (avg. 15 - 30 min. / tree) and translocates rapidly throughout the tree (approx. 48 hrs).
  • The TreeAzin dosage and number of injection sites per tree depends on the insect being controlled and on the health and size of the ash tree.
  • Consult an expert to determine treatment requirements for your tree.


15/64" hole drilled in tree


Nozzle inserted and secured

Loaded Canister mated to Nozzle
Injection begins

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 Who can apply TreeAzin® ?
  • Presently, TreeAzin may only be applied by professional licensed pesticide applicators.
  • DO NOT DELAY, have your tree assessed by a qualified service provider as soon as possible.
  • BioForest has a searchable listing of licensed pesticide applicators offering TreeAzin treatment services for Emerald Ash Borer and other insect pests.
  • It is advisable to contact multiple service providers for quotes as many work outside of their immediate office location and set their own treatment prices.
TreeAzin injection with the EcoJect System
TreeAzin injection with the EcoJect System

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 How do I become a licensed pesticide applicator?
TreeAzin and EcoJect System
TreeAzin Systemic Insecticide and the EcoJect System

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 How often do trees need to be injected with TreeAzin® ?
  • Early summer injections (5 ml/cm dbh) provide effective control of Emerald Ash Borer for up to two seasons.
    • In the year of treatment:
      • 95% EAB larvae feeding on treated tree tissues do not complete development and die
      • Adult female EAB beetles that feed on treated tree leaves lay significantly fewer eggs
      • Eggs laid are not viable (<1% viable)
    • In the year following treatment:
      • EAB larvae hatched from viable eggs do not complete development
      • Number and length of EAB galleries are significantly lower in treated vs. untreated ash
  • For insects other than Emerald Ash Borer, treatments should be conducted as part of an integrated pest management approach, including annual monitoring.
  • Conduct no more than one application of TreeAzin per tree per year.

TreeAzin treatment in 2008, photo taken in 2010

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 How much TreeAzin® is injected into a tree?
  • For Emerald Ash Borer:
    • If an ash tree is less than 25 km from a known Emerald Ash Borer infestation DO NOT DELAY, begin treatments immediately on ash trees with or without suspicious Emerald Ash Borer symptoms at the maximum dose (5 mL / cm dbh).
    • If an ash tree is greater than 25 km from a known Emerald Ash Borer infestation dose will depend on tree condition and size (2-5 mL / cm dbh).
  • For Gypsy Moth, Tent Caterpillars, Spruce Budworm, Jack Pine Budworm, and Arborvitae Leafminers, a 3 mL / cm dbh TreeAzin dose is recommended.
  • For Sawflies, including Birch Leafminer, and Pine False Webworm, a 1 mL / cm dbh TreeAzin dose is recommended.
  • When treating any tree with greater than 30% canopy thinning and/or dieback, the tree owner should be advised that tree condition may compromise treatment effectiveness
  • Always read the TreeAzin Label before using: Canada | USA
  • For more information read the TreeAzin Dose Chart and EcoJect System Manual
TreeAzin Dose Chart
Canadian TreeAzin dose chart

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 Is it expensive to treat a tree with TreeAzin® ?
  • TreeAzin treatment costs depend on a number of factors including the insect pest of concern, the degree of insect infestation, and the size, health, and location of a tree.
  • For Emerald Ash Borer, to be effective, TreeAzin treatments should be conducted every two years while populations persist.
  • Research indicates that regular treatments may be necessary for 6-10 years while Emerald Ash Borer outbreak populations persist.
  • The cost of treating and maintaining a tree's benefits are often less than the cost of removing, disposing, and replanting.
  • Among many other benefits, urban trees reduce air and noise pollution, increase property value, help reduce stress, provide wildlife habitat, and add beauty to a community.
  • It takes roughly 30 years for a newly planted tree to begin providing maximum benefits to the urban forest.
  • BioForest does not set TreeAzin treatment prices. It is advisable to contact multiple service providers for quotes.

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 When should I or shouldn't I treat my tree with TreeAzin® ?
  • Emerald Ash Borer infestations can be difficult to detect, it is advisable to consult an expert to discuss the situation in your area.
  • If Emerald Ash Borer is active in your community, it is prudent to employ a proactive strategy to keep your ash trees healthy.
  • Preventing Emerald Ash Borer from establishing itself in a tree is the optimum method for keeping a tree from being killed. However, because infestation can be difficult to detect, it is important to keep the following in mind:
    • Ideally, TreeAzin treatments should be conducted if Emerald Ash Borer is active in your area, but prior to symptoms becoming visible or ash trees becoming heavily infested.
    • For maximum efficacy, TreeAzin treatments should be timed with the emergence of adult Emerald Ash Borer beetles (typically late May to late June in Canada, early May to mid June in the USA).
    • Effective Emerald Ash Borer control can still be obtained with TreeAzin treatments conducted through the end of August.
    • Heavily infested trees, with greater than 30% crown dieback, may not be successfully controlled by TreeAzin.
BioSIM

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 Will injecting TreeAzin® damage my tree?
  • Drilling through the outer bark creates a wound in the tree.
  • The response of the tree to these wounds is affected by factors such as the size and depth of the hole and the vigor of the tree.
  • In a recent study, ash trees that were healthy and injected with TreeAzin using the EcoJect System in 2008 showed little evidence of damage a year following treatment.
  • New, healthy wood was produced over the injection sites and there was no evidence of pathogen infection, decay, or other signs of serious injury.
  • Treating an ash trees with TreeAzin to protect it from Emerald Ash Borer does not guarantee its survival, but an untreated ash tree will almost certainly die.

Recovery of 2009 cambial layer immediately above a 2008 TreeAzin injection site

2008 TreeAzin injection site showing compartmentalization of the drill hole and reservoir

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 What is the regulatory status of TreeAzin® ?
  • Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) granted TreeAzin registration in 2012 (PCP 30559).
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registered TreeAzin as a bioinsecticide in 2008 and it has since been registered in some 30 states (Reg. No. 82996-1).
  • TreeAzin is listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) for use in organic crops.
TreeAzin Label Canada TreeAzin Label USA
TreeAzin Label Canada TreeAzin Label USA

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 What about Ontario's Cosmetic Pesticide Ban?
  • Since trees are so important to protecting our climate, in Ontario, licensed exterminators can use biopesticides and lower risk pesticides to care for trees without requiring an opinion from a tree care professional.
  • Ontario's Ministry of the Environment (MOE) scheduled TreeAzin as a class 4 pesticide or "least hazardous that is commercial", with a class 11 active ingredient.
  • TreeAzin is exempt from Ontario's Cosmetic Pesticide Ban Act.

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